Miller’s work has updated this bibliography to 1977 (1977: 149–50, 167–68, 180–81).We still do not know who the Pharaoh of the Exodus was. To this day we do not know what route the Israelites took, what specific body of water they crossed, or where Mount Sinai is.(Nisan 14 is in the Spring, which is why Easter is celebrated then).By Judean tradition, Passover begins at twilight, the dividing line between Nisan 14 and 15 Gallileans, like Jesus, apparently reckoned the 24-hour day from sunrise-to-sunrise. It would mean that Christ was crucified on either a Sunday or Monday. If we project today's rabbinical calendar back to the fifth century BC, we find that Nisan 1 began on the Julian date of April 2, which corresponds to a Gregorian date of March 28. We can therefore confidentally conclude, based on the very sources that Hoehner cites, that March 5 in 444 BC was roughly the first of either Adar or Adar II. Today's rabbinical Jewish calendar is widely recognized as sometimes having Nisan 1 fall earlier in the year than it did in Old Testament times and the time of Christ. In 1994, Nisan 1 fell on March 13, and that's about the earliest it gets in today's rabbinical calendar. Hoehner's proposed date of March 5 for Nisan 1 in 444 BC is therefore as much as three weeks earlier than the earliest Nisan 1 in the Jewish colony at Elephantine, Egypt.
Can proper interpretation of the book proceed only after these basic questions are answered? In fact, the church has been deriving spiritual benefit from Exodus for a long time without such firm knowledge (25).The problems we have discussed regarding Sir Robert Anderson's dates for the first 69 weeks of Daniel's 70 weeks are by no means unknown to dispensational scholars. Harold Hoehner of the Dallas Theological Seminary in his 1978 book, Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ, published an improvement on Anderson's dates that solved four of the difficulties. Thomas Ice has in the last few years published a repudiation of Anderson's dates and endorsed Hoehner's improvements. We first provide a summary of Hoehner's pertinent views on the subject, taken from Ice's discussion of them at Seventy Weeksof Ice is one of the foremost scholars and apologists promoting John Darby's doctrine of a pre-trib secret rapture. Hoehner advocates the time of Artaxerxes' decree as 444 B. To have Nisan later than Chislev (in the same year) may seem strange until one realizes that Nehemiah was using a Tishri-to-Tishri (September/October) dating method rather than the Persian Nisan-to-Nisan method. In conclusion, the report to Nehemiah (1:1) occurred in Chislev (November/December) of 445 B. and the decree of Artaxerxes (2:1) occurred in Nisan (March/April of 444 B. If conditions were perfect on the evening of April 18, 33 AD, the crescent could have been seen and Nisan could have commenced on April 19, making Tuesday, April 28 indeed Nisan 10.He and Tim Lahaye founded the Pre-Trib Research Center in 1993, an organization dedicated to defending Darby's scenario.) As valuable as Anderson's work continues to be, I believe that it does contain a few errors, even though this overall approach was a major breakthrough in understanding this part of Daniel's prophecy. Nehemiah was following what was used by the kings of Judah earlier in their history. Otherwise, the start of Nisan would have been delayed till perhaps April 20, making Nisan 10 fall instead on Wednesday, April 29.This is a second important clue, because it gives us a solid connection with the ancient Jewish calendar system.Passover always begins on the 14th day of the Jewish lunar month of Nisan.